Overhauling India’s Legal Landscape: The Bharatiya Nyaya (Second) Sanhita, 2023

The Bharatiya Nyaya (Second) Sanhita, 2023 taken up for consideration and passing in Lok Sabha.

New Delhi, December 19, 2023 – In a significant legislative stride, the Bharatiya Nyaya (Second) Sanhita, 2023 (BNS2) has been taken up for consideration and passing in Lok Sabha. It has emerged as a transformative force, seeking to redefine India’s legal landscape. Initially introduced in Lok Sabha on August 11, 2023, and later revamped on December 12, 2023, the BNS2 replaces the archaic Indian Penal Code, 1860. The implications of this legislative evolution are vast and multifaceted.

Highlights of the BNS2

The BNS2, while retaining many offenses from its predecessor, introduces novel elements that echo the contemporary needs of Indian society. Noteworthy aspects include:

  1. Community Service as a Form of Punishment: In a groundbreaking move, the BNS2 incorporates community service as a form of punishment, signaling a shift towards restorative justice. Offenses, such as theft of property under Rs. 5,000, attempt to commit suicide with the intent to restrain a public servant, and appearing intoxicated in public, now come with the possibility of community service.
  2. Reconceptualization of Sedition: Sedition, a contentious issue, takes a different form in the BNS2. Rather than being outrightly removed, the legislation penalizes acts like exciting secession, armed rebellion, or subversive activities, broadening the scope while eliminating the conventional charge of sedition.
  3. Addressing Modern Crimes: With an acute awareness of contemporary challenges, the BNS2 brings terrorism and organized crime into its purview. Acts threatening the unity, integrity, security, or economic security of the country are now expressly considered terrorism. Organized crime, including cyber-crime, kidnapping, and extortion, is also explicitly defined.
  4. Nuanced Approach to Heinous Crimes: Murder by a group based on identity markers such as caste, language, or personal belief is deemed a grave offense, inviting penalties ranging from life imprisonment to the death penalty, coupled with fines.

Key Issues and Analysis

While the BNS2 presents a progressive legal framework, it’s not without its critiques and complexities:

  1. Age of Criminal Responsibility: The retention of the age of criminal responsibility at seven years, extendable to 12 based on maturity, raises international eyebrows. Questions persist about alignment with global standards.
  2. Inconsistencies in Offenses Against Children: The BNS2 introduces inconsistencies in the age threshold for offenses against children, potentially leading to legal ambiguities.
  3. Overlap with Special Laws: The legislation creates overlaps with existing special laws, possibly resulting in multiple regulatory regimes and increased compliance costs.
  4. Neglecting Reforms Suggested by Justice Verma Committee: The BNS2 fails to incorporate several recommendations from the Justice Verma Committee, including gender-neutral rape laws and recognizing marital rape as an offense.
  5. Ambiguities in Community Service: Despite the innovative inclusion of community service, the legislation lacks clarity on the nature and administration of this form of punishment.


In reimagining India’s legal framework, the Bharatiya Nyaya (Second) Sanhita, 2023 strives to balance tradition with contemporary imperatives. While introducing progressive elements, it grapples with inconsistencies and omissions. As the nation transitions into this new legal era, the BNS2 lays the foundation for debates, discussions, and possible future amendments.

Download The Bharatiya Nyaya (Second) Sanhita, 2023

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